Literacy is a civil rights issue

Tuesday, July 7th, 2020 | Reading | No Comments |

As the great abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass said, “Once you learn to read, you will be forever free.” 

But, what happens to the disproportionate number of students of color who never learn to read at proficient levels?  In our culture, one must be literate to be a functioning, contributing member of society.  Literacy is not just the ability to read and write—it is a right, and literacy plays a role in our individual levels of self-respect, self-worth, and dignity.  

“Children have a deep sense of personal dignity…  (certain lessons) point out the path of honor and justice.”

Dr. Maria Montessori

Becoming critically literate within school contexts is about engaging in academically rigorous work that is grounded in students’ lives, connected to larger contexts, and work that invites students to be filled with hope as they work toward creating the world in which they want to live (Van Sluys, Lewison, & Flint, 2006).  What happens when that is not the case, however?  Without literacy, there is no social justice.  In part, this is precisely what we see playing out in the United States right now.  On Saturday, June 13th, 2020, I watched television coverage of worldwide protests, with tears in my eyes.  I was inspired by crowds of passionate people, not just in America, but all over the globe, demanding justice for Black citizens.  It had been two weeks since George Floyd’s death at the hands of the police, and as a result, we witnessed some of the most engaged, empowered, and determined anti-racism protests and calls-to-action in decades.  Throughout the United States and the world, thousands of protesters took to the streets and to social media to show solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement, and to demand that governments eradicate police brutality and institutional racism (O’Malley, 2020).

During this time, there was also special coverage of groups of teachers banning together in protest to raise awareness of the unfair distribution of resources available in American schools.  Teachers said they marched because they see first-hand how their students of color are not given the same opportunities as their white counterparts.  Educators were eloquent in pointing out how the issues foregrounding the Black Lives Matter marches are embedded in American schools (Mintzer & Greene, 2020).

Set against the dystopian backdrop of a global pandemic, the racial protests could have easily been interpreted as separate from the public health crisis, yet the health of the Black people in our country was inextricably linked to the mass protests.  George Floyd, whose death inspired the outcry, had recently recovered from COVID-19, and he was one of countless Black people who were disproportionately affected by the disease.  Due to systematic racism, there is a historically-laden lack of resources available to people of color, which include both health care and education. While some critics deny systematic racism as an unhelpful construct, the United States cannot deny hard statistics that the wage gap between Black and white men is as large today as it was in 1950 (Leonhardt, 2020). Literacy rates, health care, and other resources, are all deeply intertwined.

In 2019, only 18 percent of Black 4th-graders scored proficient or above in reading skills, and for 8th graders, only 15percent did. Although more than half of white students fail to meet the proficiency bar as well, the statistics for Black students should infuriate anyone who is dedicated to social justice. When students fail to attain basic proficiency in literacy, it often translates into more significant struggles in high school, lower college attendance and graduation rates, and a higher likelihood of incarceration (Wexler, 2020).

I am the white mother of a white child with dyslexia.  I am also a college professor, researcher, and a literacy specialist. What I find incredulous and unacceptable is that there is plentiful scientific evidence that explains why our standard approach to reading instruction isn’t working for so many Black kids—and others. Yet, educators and policymakers are still often unaware of that research; and what’s worse—some even reject or deny it. Many schools continue to amplify the same old approaches that haven’t worked for decades, somehow expecting a different result.  To make matters even worse, now imagine your school has been closed for months because of the pandemic, and you’ve had little or no access to instruction of any kind  (Wexler, 2020).  My purpose in writing this article is to provide a tangible pathway to racial justice for teachers, students, and parents, who struggle with dyslexia and other reading disabilities. 

Since we are currently forced to engage in online learning, we could seize this opportunity to not only do it, but do it extremely well.  At least by using a high-quality program via the Internet, students who have traditionally struggled with literacy, could be receiving high quality education in a structured, multisensory approach that actually works, such as Orton-Gillingham, and Orton-Gillingham-inspired online programs, such as Nessy.  According to Meyer (2020),

Results from online learning with Nessy during COVID-19 spring were quite remarkable, with students gaining a grade level’s worth of reading skills in six weeks, working remotely without a teacher. Dyslexic students using Nessy for six weeks during the COVID-19 spring made nine-tenths of a year’s progress.

I have been a teacher educator for nearly 20 years, and until we systematically train all pre-service and in-service teachers in evidence-based reading instruction, nothing will change.  One of the most effective ways to ensure this occurs is to utilize the process of college accreditation to hold teacher educators accountable for graduating new teachers who are well-equipped to help our most struggling readers.  In the process of doing so, we must point out the distinctions of Black students, so that they finally get the attention and support they deserve.  At times, there is an unconscious bias in school contexts, and assumptions are made around the intersection of race and disability.

Fortunately, more African Americans are now in the spotlight, having their voices heard.  “African American males are two to three times more likely to be overidentified with behavioral, emotional disorder versus having a learning disability,” says Dr. Shawn Anthony Robinson (Robertson, 2019).  Dr. Robinson, an African American research associate with the University of Wisconsin, knows first-hand the painful struggle of learning to read.  As a child, he struggled with undiagnosed dyslexia, and as an adult, he became a proficient reader, and went on to earn a Ph.D., paving the path to educate and inspire a new generation on ways to embrace and overcome dyslexia.  Geraldine Robinson, the African American mother and grandmother of children with dyslexia, was recently honored for her advocacy by the Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund (Romney, 2020).  Mrs. Robinson has spent years as an unwavering warrior for structured literacy instruction.  Her quest has been to transform public schools, so they no longer fail to educate Black students with dyslexia.     

History shows us the various ways that race and privilege have limited the production, distribution, and use of literacy (and its instruction) in our schools.  For far too long, American society has upheld roadblocks to employment, health care, housing, and proper education (Greene, 2008).  Educational opportunities are not equally distributed, and we have plenty of test scores that illustrate this reality (Kozol, 2005).  What about the faces, the souls, behind these test scores?

Social justice is about understanding education and access to literacy as civil rights.  Everyone deserves access to quality education that meets the learning needs of every child.  Everyone deserves equal distribution of material and emotional resources (Nieto, 2006).  When all learners have everything they need to be successful in schools, they can live their lives with dignity. 


Greene, S. (2008).  Literacy as a civil right: Reclaiming social justice in literacy teaching and learning.  New York: Peter Lang.

Kozol, J. (2005).  The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America.  New York: Crown Publishers. 

Leonhardt, D. (2020).  The New York Times: The Morning, June 25, 2020.

Meyer, D.  (2020).  Here’s How Remote Learning Could Help Struggling Readers, Education Post.  Retrieved from:

Mintzer, A. & Greene, J.  (2020).  SC teachers join protest in support of Black Lives Matter, WIS News 10.  Retrieved from:

Nieto, S.  (2006).  Teaching for social justice in schools: Stories of courage and Corazon.  Paper presented at annual meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English Assembly for Research, Chicago, IL. 

O’Malley, K.  (2020).  How Black Lives Matter Protests Have Changed The World, Two Weeks After George Floyd’s Death, Elle.  Retrieved from:

Robertson, T.  (2019).  UW-Oshkosh Alum Creates Black, Dyslexic Superhero, Fox Valley 365.  Retrieved from

Romney, L.  (2020).  Public Schools Are Failing Black Students With Dyslexia: One Grandmother’s Story, KAWL Public Radio, San Francisco.  Retrieved from:

Wexler, N.  (2020).  How ‘Reading Instruction’ Fails Black And Brown Children, Forbes.  Retrieved from:

Van Sluys, K., Lewison, M., & Flint, A. S. (2006). Researching critical literacy: A critical study of analysis of classroom discourse. Journal of Literacy Research, 38(2), 197–233.

In-Betweenness of Disability

Tuesday, April 14th, 2015 | Children with disabilities, Children with dispraxia, Developmental Coordination Disorder, Parents of children with special needs, Social Communication Disorder | No Comments |


Is it finally springtime in the Northeast?  Last year, I wrote the following blog post after a horrendous winter and mourning the loss of a loved one.  I was ready for springtime and renewal, but I never published my writing.  This year, I am ready to publish, mostly because I have grown, and more importantly, my daughter has grown. I was reminded that healing is gradual and continuous. Even in the midst of renewal, everything is not yet fully healed or whole. We often inhabit an “in-betweenness” in our lives—sometimes we seem okay, and sometimes we do not.  That’s how it is with my daughter, Eve.

Santa vs. the Easter Bunny

Last April, Eve and I traveled to Yankee Candle Village in South Deerfield, MA.  While there, we enjoyed time with both the Easter Bunny and Santa.  I know, it sounds ridiculous!  One of the beautiful parts of Yankee Candle is that it’s Christmas year-round, while still celebrating seasonal holidays as well.  Basically, it’s a child’s wonderland, and Eve loved it.


Although it made perfect sense to me, to an outside eye, it may have appeared fascinating that Eve was enthusiastic, affectionate and talkative with the Easter Bunny, while extremely tentative with Santa.  Yet, for a child with Social Communication Disorder, the Easter Bunny is a dream-come-true, because he’s encased in a furry suit and doesn’t speak.  Meanwhile, we all know that Santa will be face-to-face in his trademark red clothing– and sociable.

Furthermore, Santa was engaging children in crafts that required careful fine motor planning, which is a nightmare for a child with Developmental Coordination Disorder.


From the photographs, one may see that Eve did well with both Santa and the Easter Bunny, though.  There are no visual indicators of Eve’s disabilities, so folks naturally assume she’ll be okay in a variety of situations.  Yet, Eve inhabits an in-between space with her abilities.  Since the Easter Bunny was fluffy and didn’t verbally communicate, Eve was quick to hug him, speak to him, wave, etc.  However, when Santa was attempting to have a seemingly age-appropriate conversation, Eve couldn’t respond.  When Santa attempted the flower craft with Eve, he immediately noticed that Eve required more guidance and support with the intricate handwork.

I’m not the first person to consider the in-betweenness of disabilities.  In fact, each year Temple University hosts a symposium on the changing landscape of how we perceive disabilities.  Their theme for the spring 2014 conference was: “In-Between Spaces, Places, and Ways of Being.”  I could not think of a better title for enhancing awareness of living life with a disability.  Life is filled with transitions, and people need strategies to navigate a variety of changes in their lives, regardless of ability level.   At Temple, they consider changes between identity categories, life stages, or disabling/enabling environments.


Understanding In-Betweenness

As the mother of a child with issues that hinge on the idea of in-betweenness, we sometimes struggle with movement between places, and ways of being. Other days, we don’t struggle.  Eve has taught me to be in the moment.  As her mother, and as an educator, I have an idea of where she “should” be, both academically and developmentally– but perhaps in the future.  Certainly, we have goals, and Eve receives speech and occupational therapy, in an incredible school.  Yet, I need to accept Eve for who she is, and what she is capable of right now, in this moment.  I accept her and see her for who she is– not what I want her to be.

My hope is to provide advocacy and support for the children and parents who have been affected by the in-betweenness of certain types of disabilities, which tend to be less visual, and not nearly as understood. Since I have a background in special education, I already thought I was pretty humble.  To be the mother of a child with special needs, especially needs that aren’t often visible, and that occupy an in-between space, has made me infinitely more humble.

Some children, such as Eve, occupy in-betweenness in the ways they appear okay, yet they’re having trouble processing information.  For example, Eve might suddenly scream, pull her hair, or place an inappropriate object in her mouth.  She may appear shy, yet she’s really not introverted; she just can’t sometimes retrieve language to respond, or to formulate a story.  She’s going to be okay, yet everyday feels like a battle to do the simplest actions, especially those that involve motor control, such as riding a bike.  Eventually though, Eve did ride a bike, and I cried tears of joy when those tiny feet pedaled.


In a landmark study by Lukia Sarroub in 2002, she articulated the term “in-betweenness” as a powerful heuristic to signify the hybrid adaptation of one’s practices or identity to one’s textual, social, cultural, and physical surroundings.  This notion of in-betweenness is an effective concept when considering that people often occupy and practice nearly everything in in-between spaces.  I keep this in-betweenness in mind with Eve because I find joy in the simplest things she does and experiences, and in the same day, I sometimes feel anguish and intense anxiety about skills she has yet to master.  We’re somewhere in-between.

Hope in the In-Betweenness

At the end of the day, I acknowledge our in-betweenness as hopeful. From texts as old as the Bible, we can cherish the words “hoping against hope.”  Just when I thought Eve might never write, she wrote her name.  Even though the letters aren’t the lovely script she’s learning at school, her signature is instead filled with distinctive, artistic flair.


Just in the past year, Eve has grown tremendously.  She can now swing independently on a playground swing, finally pumping those little legs.  She has made friends, and even has little, inspiring conversations with them.  Instead of being obsessed with princesses and the “Frozen” movie, Eve is passionate about simple, natural objects, such as flowers, animals, and pinecones, and I think that is pretty cool.  For now, I’ll treasure this in-betweenness, because just as springtime provides us with imperfect renewal, our growth is gradual and continuous.


Christine Woodcock, Ph.D. is the Learning Disabilities Specialist at Northwestern Connecticut Community College, and an adjunct professor at American International College, where she specializes in literacy education.  

How to have a successful parent-teacher conference

Tuesday, February 3rd, 2015 | Parent-teacher conferences, Parent-teacher relationships | No Comments |

As soon as you click on this link, you’re probably wondering, “Who’s the audience?  Is this article for parents or teachers?”  The answer is both, because this is a relationship.

I see this relationship from a variety of angles— I am a mom (of a child with special needs, to boot!) and I was also a K-8 special education teacher and a professor in teacher education for many years.  Now, I am a Learning Disabilities Specialist at the college-level.

Yet, I still cringe at the thought of parent-teacher conferences at my daughter’s school.  I love my daughter’s teacher, so why?  Why on earth do I feel this way?

Maybe the answer isn’t so complicated.  A child is the most cherished person in the world to any parent.  For both teachers and parents, the parent-teacher conference is a deeply emotional and vulnerable experience.  As soon as we admit that, we can accept it.

Below you’ll see tips for both teachers and parents to help navigate the vulnerabilities with more grace and grit.  My hope is that by keeping the child’s best interests in mind, the conferences will go smoothly.

make the most of your parent teacher conference


Tips for teachers:

1.  You set the tone.  You determine the overall dynamic and flow, so my suggestion is that you make it as positive as possible.


 “Teaching, I was coming to understand, was a kind of romance… You… invited a relationship of sorts” (Rose, 1989, p. 102).  


Relationships give meaning to practice (Hicks, 2002, p. 151).

2.  Aesthetics can play a huge role in the comfort of some parents.  Fresh flowers, soft music, warm tea, and cookies can all go a long way in putting a person at ease.  Okay, I realize this sounds like a crazy date, but in a silly way, it is!



3.  Be specific.  Please don’t talk in generalizations.  For example, instead of saying, “Susie is such a pleasure to have in class,” say something specific such as, “Susie brings joy to my life in the ways she is always willing to lend a hand, or offer a hug when anyone appears stressed.”

4.  Always start with praise.  Brainstorm and write down lots of positive attributes about each child, and again, be specific!  Instead of saying, “Susie is really independent,” try to tease out how you know she is independent.  How does she show you that trait?  For example, “I love the way Susie gets right to work when she enters the classroom.  She is eager to begin a new activity.”

5.  Any parent wants to hear that you genuinely care for, or even love, his/her child.  Don’t be shy about expressing that, and again, be specific.  Instead of simply saying, “I adore Susie,” say “I love Susie because she is a ray of sunshine, always smiling and enthusiastic.  She is a bundle of energy, and her energy  invigorates me.”

download (1)


6.  Of course, no human being is perfect… not even this fictional Susie.  So, have a bulleted list of goals for parents to read, specific to each child.  Right after each bulleted goal, have a brief plan of how you propose to meet each goal.  Many parents are goal-oriented, and want their children to be working on things, anyway.  This approach makes parents much less defensive, because it’s not negative, yet still targets what the child needs to work on.

Here is an example:

Susie will be reading Level L books by the end of the school year.  In order to accomplish this goal, we will need to nail down her long vowel patterns.  We will have dedicated word work for fifteen minutes each day.  Each session will involve a brief review and mini-lesson, followed by a word game to tackle each long vowel pattern.  (Maybe have a basket nearby with a sample lesson.  People love visuals and hands-on examples.)  Parents also appreciate this “we” language because it shows that “we’re in this together” type of attitude.

7.  Inevitably, there are negative issues with children in your class, and those shouldn’t be ignored.  There are tips to address the issues with honesty and neutrality.  Describe the experience and immediately follow-up with a plan or two with how you plan to address it, or how you have already been addressing it.  For example, let’s say fictional Susie is bossy (for lack of better way of putting it) and it turns off a lot of her peers.  I might say, “Since Susie has such an independent streak, she sometimes acts in a very directive way with other students, which her friends find upsetting.  I have been suggesting that Susie write down her ideas in a journal, instead of overwhelming her friends with the ideas.  I will also work with Susie on ways to ask her friends questions about what they would like to do. I’m also working on partnering Susie with a younger student with whom she’ll become an academic buddy, providing her with a more productive avenue for her energy.”


Overlap tips between teachers and parents:


1.  One trap I see a lot of teachers and parents fall into is the “wish trap.”  This is when a teacher or parent says something like, “I wish Susie would just sit still and focus.  I know she is so smart, and we’re not seeing all of which she is capable because she just won’t sit still long enough to show us.”  This is the “wish trap” because it’s negative and not goal oriented.  Plus, we need to accept the children where they are, not where we wish they were.  Describe times Susie does sit still and listen well.  What’s happening during those times so you can replicate it?  If Susie has trouble focusing, what are strategies to help her sit still?  Maybe physical exercise before school, a different diet, sensory objects to hold, or perhaps behavior incentives?



2.  Both parents and teachers are sources of hope for the child.  Keep a tone of hopefulness throughout the conference.  The conference should not be a force of doom and gloom, examining everything wrong with the child.  I’ve worked with very troubled youth in my career, yet I’m always careful to remain realistic, yet positive in my conferences, pointing out strengths in each human being, and harnessing those strengths to address weaknesses.  Finally, I always have back-up plans for the students, offering suggestions until every person in the room feels hopeful moving forward.


Tips for parents:


1.  Listen.  The conference is your time to listen.  This isn’t about you.  This is about your child.  I know this sounds harsh, but… check your ego at the door.  We all have dreams for our children.  This conference is about meeting your child where he/she is right now, not where you hope she’ll be at age 40.


2.  That said, trust your instincts.  If something doesn’t feel right to you, please speak up, and offer suggestions.  Or, wait and let the information digest at home, and set up another time to discuss your ideas with the teacher once you’ve had time to think about the information.


3.  You are your child’s best advocate.  There are times I have respectfully disagreed with professionals at my daughter’s school.  It wasn’t a fight over who’s right; in the end we’re all just trying to do what’s best for the child.

That is precisely the conclusion, too.  Both parents and teachers have the best interests of the children in mind.  When parents trust that the teachers truly have the best interests of the children in mind, the relationship grows.


Hicks, D. (2002). Reading lives: Working-class children and literacy learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

Rose, M. (2005).  Lives on the boundary.  New York: Penguin.

How can I help my child with reading comprehension?

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008 | Reading | 1 Comment |

**This article originally appeared on**

As a professor specializing in reading, I am frequently asked this question by worried parents.  I’m not surprised, considering how complex and confusing comprehension can be.  Although there are no “quick-fix recipes” to solve the complexities of comprehension, I can offer some relatively simple strategies.  When applied consistently and patiently, these strategies will help comprehension dramatically.  The key is to make comprehension explicit with strategy use.  Since comprehension is in our heads, and is therefore invisible and intangible, as adults, we need to make our strategy use as hands-on, concrete, and explicit as possible.

How many times have you read an entire paragraph, or even a whole page, and you have no idea what you just read? 

It happens all of the time, to the best of us!  Even really accomplished readers suffer from this same problem at times.  That is because our eyes can float over words, and our brains automatically decode the words, yet we are not truly reading because we are not making any meaning from the words.  In order to say we have sincerely read something, we have to have derived meaning from, it. Otherwise, the glossy-eyed “reading” is simply referred to as decoding, and not reading. In other words, when we read, it has to make sense, otherwise we’re not really reading. 

Comprehension is NOT natural for many people.

Many children are decoders, not readers.  Children must know that text is supposed to make sense. Similarly, lots of children, unfortunately, simply don’t know how to comprehend, merely because no one has ever showed them how to make meaning from a text.  The connections come easer and quicker for some than others.  Most adults cannot point to a specific time when they learned to comprehend.  It is something we just… did.  The problem is that some youngsters need and deserve explicit instruction in how to comprehend.  When this happens, they can grow up loving to read, and seeing the value in reading!  Not surprisingly, folks who have severe difficulties comprehending hate to read.  It’s a safe bet to assume they would love to read if they had explicit comprehension instruction.

Comprehension is an active, inner conversation

Unlike passive activities such as playing video games or watching TV, reading is an active process in our brains.  Strategic readers address their thinking in an inner conversation that helps them make sense of what they read.  Help to foster these inner (and outer) conversations with your children by discussing their texts with them. 

Readers take the written word and construct meaning based on their own thoughts, knowledge, and experiences.  Help your child to make explicit, personal connections to the text they are reading. 

Provide structure for your child to think when they read.  Children must develop an awareness of their own thinking, so that they can monitor themselves while they read.

Cognitive Capacity

In my other recent article for Query Cat entitled “How can we help struggling readers?” I shared some of the following pointers for children who are having trouble reading.  In our brains, we have what is called a Cognitive Capacity.  I sometimes jokingly refer to this concept as my “cup runneth over!”  In simple terms, when any of us feel frustrated with something, our brain power stops. There is only so much we can focus on at a given time, and the rest understandably turns to mush.  Unfortunately, we have all had what I refer to as a “meltdown,” when the stress of something just gets to be too much.  Typically, and sadly, this is exactly what happens to a reader’s Cognitive Capacity when he/she is trying to comprehend something that is just too difficult.  The child is trying so hard to decode a word– letter by painful letter– that he/she loses track, and can’t make heads or tails of the entire thing. 

I know this may seem overly simplistic, but…

Your children need books that they can actually read!  When considering your child’s reading comprehension difficulties, the difficulty level of the text may be more than 90% of the battle.  When a book is too hard, your child is using up all of his/her brain power on decoding the words, that he/she simply cannot make any sense of it. On the other hand, when your child reads books that are comfortable, he/she can have the inner conversations and attempt to make sense of the text in an enjoyable and much less agonizing way. 

8 Magical Strategies

When you regularly and thoughtfully work with your child on the following strategies, you will notice an impressive difference in not just the child’s comprehension, but probably in several other aspects of the child’s life as well.  When you teach a child to comprehend, you are also teaching a child to empathize, to infer, and to become a more tolerant, understanding person who can think outside of the box.  That is precisely why so many children struggle with comprehension—developmentally, it is difficult for children to get beyond literal, concrete understandings.  As the child becomes older, especially around 3rd grade and up, it is essential that your child gradually become more aware of others’ feelings and perspectives.  That will help him/her to understand various perspectives in texts, and in life. 

Practice these strategies patiently, one at a time, with some favorite books at home, which also happen to be at a comfortable reading level for your child.  Remember, the more explicit you make the strategies, the better your child will comprehend.  Gradually, your child will begin to implement these strategies independently, but please check in with your child consistently to see how he/she is progressing.

1.  Make connections

The first of the strategies also happens to be one of my personal favorites, because it’s fun and straightforward.  Simply encourage your child to make personal connections to the content of the book he/she is reading.  You could even jot the connections on sticky notes in colorful magic markers and stick them in the book, or make a cute chart of the connections. 

There are three different kinds of connections we tend to make while reading: text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world

Text-to-self connections are easiest.  We merely relate concepts in the book to aspects of our own lives.  For example, “I love the lake in this book.  It reminds me of our summer vacations when we always visited that lake in New York.”

Text-to-text connections are also fun and easy.  Obviously, you just relate the book you’re currently reading to another book you’ve read.  Perhaps the characters in this book remind of the characters in a book you read last week.  Also, don’t feel constricted by the text-to-text label.  I always encourage my students to think of movies and TV shows to which they can relate their books, too!

Text-to-world connections are trickier.  With these connections, you want to relate what you’ve just read to a larger, worldly phenomenon, and not just something specific to your own life.  This is hard for children, for obvious reasons.  Children have little experience beyond their personal existence.  They have yet to truly understand the world.  Likewise, developmentally, it’s challenging for many children to imagine that other people even have different perspectives than the ones to which they are accustomed.  This is where the hard work comes in for both parents and teachers.  Encourage your child to think outside the box.  Show them in compelling ways that other people may think and behave differently.  This will develop over time, so be patient!  There more explicit you are with making text-to-world connections, they better your child will become at it.

2.  Infer

Making inferences is similar to the text-to-world connection strategy.  In order for children to adequately understand, they must be able to make inferences, yet this is a difficult concept even for some adults to grasp!  Gradually work with children on drawing conclusions based on what information they know.  Likewise, show them how to make educated guesses, and to look for hints to back up their reasoning.  You could make lists and pictures together to help this strategy along.  As always, model inferring for your child in an explicit way, so that he/she can see how you derive conclusions. Do you openly empathize with others?  Do you articulate how another may have a different perspective than you?  All of these explicitly modeled behaviors will help your child with the all-too important task of inferring. 

3. Predictions

An uncomplicated strategy to foster comprehension is to simply ask your child to make frequent predictions.  Most parents and teachers make the mistake of only asking children to make predictions at the beginning of a book.  Instead, ask children to make predictions at the onset of a book, as well as at strategic points throughout the book.  This stimulates their thinking in a number of ways.  At the end of the book, discuss with children whether or not they liked the ending.  Would they have ended it differently?  If so, how? 

4.  Visualize

One of the best parts of reading is to picture the story or the content in one’s head. Ask children to describe how they picture the characters and the setting in the story. If it’s non-fiction, ask them to draw their own pictures of the content.  Another fun activity is to compare and contrast visualizations between book and movie versions of various stories.

5.  Questions

Asking children questions is the simplest and most old-fashioned way to ensure they have understood material.  Don’t just ask questions at the end of a given passage.  I would suggest stopping at strategic points to see how they are doing throughout a passage.  Furthermore, the quality of the questions themselves can also determine the quality of understanding.  Most people only ask explicit, concrete questions that only pertain to memory.  For example, “what color shirt was he wearing?”  Instead, I encourage people to ask implicit questions, which are open-ended, and to which there is not necessarily a right or wrong answer, but by which you can still determine how well the child understood.  For example, rather than asking what color shirt the character wore, in its place ask “Why was it important that the character wore a blue shirt?”  This causes the child to think in a deeper manner, without having to memorize the color of the shirt, yet you still yield rich insights pertaining to how well the child is comprehending.

6. Determine importance

When you were in high school or college, did you ever have a textbook that turned a fluorescent color because you couldn’t figure out which passages were important, so you just used a highlighter to highlight the entire text?!  This is a common scenario to which most of us can relate.  Sometimes, whether it is a text, or some other aspect of life, we have a hard time determining what is important.  It often has to do with the difficulty level of the content, and how familiar we are with it.  When a subject is overwhelming, confusing, and foreign, it is much harder to determine what is important, than when we are dealing with familiar territory, which is at a comfortable difficulty level for us. 

Practice determining importance with your child.  Explicitly model how you determine what is important.  Show your child how you might look in topic sentences, or at bullet points, titles, or headings to make more sense of a passage.  Practice highlighting a passage together.  Once children know how to extract important information, they can study better, focus better, and provide adequate retellings and/or summaries.

7.  Synthesize

Once children can determine importance, they can begin to synthesize.  The easiest way I can think of to explain synthesis to my students is to use a weaving metaphor.  When we synthesize, we have to take information from different sources, and weave it all together for ourselves.  This is no easy task!  Imagine a weaver who has to select the best spools of thread, based on her knowledge of thread.  Then, she must weave the threads together into one coherent, beautiful piece.  That is precisely what successful readers do when they comprehend.  They weave the information, or synthesize it.  I would suggest putting important facts from a book onto long strips of paper, which could represent threads.  Then, think through how you would weave those important facts together, and you could even physically manipulate the papers until you have your own quilt.  This activity helps a lot when children have to write research papers, or other written responses to text.

8.  Fix-Up Strategies

Last but not least, simply equip your child to have fix-up strategies at his/her fingertips upon which he/she can rely when information breaks down.  When you are reading, won’t you stop and re-read something when you know it’s no longer making sense?  Well, lots of children won’t do that.  They won’t stop!  They just keep going!  Together with your child, brainstorm and make a list of fix-up strategies.  The list could be as simple as “stop, go back, re-read, use a highlighter, predict, ask questions, etc.”  It doesn’t have to be anything fancy.  The two keys are that your child first recognizes when his/her comprehension breaks down, and second, knows a few things he/she can do to help mend that comprehension. 

Having explicit strategies at our fingertips is the secret to success when it comes to comprehension!

For more information, I would highly recommend the book Strategies that Work by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis.  It is the best book on the market about comprehension, and it is the source of much of the information I condensed for you into this brief article.�

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What should be on the baby’s bookshelf?

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008 | Reading | 1 Comment |

** This article originally appeared on **

Although I am not a mother, I am a proud aunt and a literacy specialist, so I am frequently asked my all-time favorite question—what should be in the baby’s library?  Whether you are a parent, friend, or family member to the new bundle of joy, I encourage people to purchase books as gifts for baby.  Books are items to be cherished over time, and are much more meaningful than onesies and rattles.  Certainly, I understand there are necessities when welcoming a new child home, which are not to be overlooked.  Yet, there is no denying the lasting power of a book, especially when it is coupled with a plush toy, or even more crucial items such as the needed clothing, furniture, and diapers.  Think beyond baby showers, too.  Don’t forget any of the upcoming festivities and holidays, which are all perfect occasions for bringing books as gifts, such as birthdays, baptisms, Thanksgiving, etc.  Books are relatively inexpensive, and create enduring memories. 

Nowadays, both common sense and research tell us that reading to children regularly, from a very young age, and exposing them to books on a frequent basis, all have far-reaching effects on children’s overall well-being, but especially pertaining to their success in school.  I encourage people to read to children at any age, even from the womb, and as early as their first months of life.  In fact, there is absolutely no reason to stop reading together, even as the child grows older.  Evidence shows that older children, teens, and even adults love to hear books read aloud.

Obviously, you could read the Yellow Pages in a compelling way and the baby will listen attentively, although I do think some books are better than others!  While I have never considered myself a “book snob,” and I can easily be found rummaging through sale bins and yard sales scavenging for cheap books, some books are definitely of better quality than others.  There is no denying that some books are deservedly classics, so if you are going to make the investment, I would suggest some of the following titles.   

Board books… with a little extra

Before baby starts grabbing and placing items in his/her mouth, clearly any book is okay and safe to read.  However, before too long, little hands will be gripping pages and drool is inevitable.  That is why I would recommend board books.  Fine quality board books are made entirely of sturdy cardboard, with smooth, rounded edges.  In most cases, they are safe for infants and toddlers to handle, although please proceed with caution and keep an eye on the children.  Most board books are made with care and consideration of tots, however I have unfortunately seen plenty of board books that have been produced irresponsibly, with flimsy pull-out flaps and rough edges, which I would certainly not recommend.  Nearly all book stores and libraries have areas devoted entirely to board books in the children’s sections.  Peruse thoughtfully. 

When I purchase board books for babies, I often select the following.  These books are not only classics (or of considerable quality), but also sometimes come in gift sets with a little additional gift, such as a plush toy.

1.  My first choice is a classic most of us will recognize, Goodnight Moon by Margaret Wise Brown.  Most readers love its rhythmic, repetitive prose.  This gift set comes with baby socks that are embellished with “cow jumping over the moon.”

2.  Second, who can forget the over-eating caterpillar in Eric Carle’s The Very Hungry Caterpillar?  This delightful set comes with a plush toy of the starving culprit.  Carle has a whimsical, unique style; he is one of my absolute favorite author/illustrators, so I think any of his books are perfect.

3.  Third, there is no denying the popularity of Guess How Much I Love You by Sam McBratney, which is an endearing story reminding us that there is no contest when it comes to how much a parent and child love one another.  Since it’s the perfect bedtime story, cuddle up at bedtime with the accompanying plush rabbit in this gift set.

4.  Fourth, the lyrical language and playful quality of We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by Michael Rosen is always a crowd pleaser.  It could be fun to act this one out with the supplementary plush bear in this gift set.

5.  Fifth, is an exceptionally written and illustrated tale of maternal love in Owl Babies by Martin Waddell, which also comes with a plush owl toy. This book will easily follow children into their pre-school and early reading days.

6.  Sixth, is another classic tale most will remember—naughty Peter Rabbit, who wanders into Mr. McGregor’s garden, despite his mother’s warnings.  The exquisite text and illustrations by Beatrix Potter, all accompanied by this plush toy version of Peter, are the ideal gift.

7.  Seventh, another recognizable, timeless text is Pat the Bunny by  Dorothy Kunhardt.  You may remember that this book is already tactile in nature, yet it still comes in a gift set with a plush bunny for additional play.

8. Last, for bedtime, I would recommend snuggling up with either Time for Bed by Mem Fox, or Tell Me Something Happy Before I go to Sleep by Joyce Dunbar.  Both come with book-themed night lights in these gift sets.

Cloth Books

Another often over-looked option to the more popular board books are cloth books.  Cloth books are simply not as prevalent as board books, but they are nonetheless a great option, since they’re soft, cuddly, and washable.  As with anything else, I would be careful of choking and suffocation with these items, but cloth books provide an excellent tactile experience for infants and toddlers.

If you decide to go the cloth book route while shopping, I would suggest a popular book such as P. D. Eastman’s Are You My Mother?  This fun, playful, repetitive text captivates young children.  When I was a full-time babysitter and child day care provider in my college years, I had this book memorized!

Book Sets

On a special occasion, such as a milestone birthday, or a religious service such as a baptism/christening, please consider a slightly pricier option for book gifting, such as the following book sets.  As the impractical friend and fabulous aunt, I have been known to show up to baby showers with heavy armfuls of book sets, instead of with blankets and pacifiers.  Book sets tend to be slightly more expensive, so please shop with care, and follow the suggestions of others and your own instincts to ensure you are purchasing classic books and books of significant quality.  Perhaps most importantly, see these book sets as important, meaningful investments.  Book sets are items that families will cherish for years, and are far more poignant than lots of other gifts.  Children will grow into these books, and will treasure them for decades.  Remember, by buying the books as a set, you are purchasing several books in one keepsake box, often by the same author.

Here are some suggestions:

1.  Years ago, when my older cousin and his wife had their first child, I showed up at the baptism with the World of Peter Rabbit Box Set by Beatrix Potter.  While it’s certainly easier to throw some cash in a greeting card, I am confident this classic box set created unparalleled memories.

2.  One of my frequent purchases for baby showers is Jan Brett’s Little Library Box Set.  Since the set comes with three of Brett’s most famous books, in board book format, it’s an excellent price, and Brett’s artwork is superb with its delicate details.  This one never disappoints!

3.  Even if my other suggestions have not been familiar, here is one everybody will recognize.  Consider the Pooh Library original 4-volume set.  With the beloved, wisdom-filled text of A.A. Milne and Ernest H. Shepard’s unmatched, elegant illustrations, you’ll be the hit of the party with this gift!

4.  Trust me—I used to teach 1st grade, and my next suggestion will not only tantalize an infant or toddler with its rhythmic language, but will also be a new reader’s best friend.  The Brown Bear & Friends Board Book Gift Set is perfect for children of many ages and stages.  You can’t go wrong with any of Bill Martin and Eric Carle’s classic texts.

5.  One way to create lasting memories with the children in your life is to read nearly any text by Maurice Sendak.  There are too many to name, but I would suggest the Nutshell Library (Caldecott Collection) Box Set by Maurice Sendak, which includes four memorable books that will entertain children for years.

6.  My final suggestion is the only recommendation that may be gender-specific to girls, although there is absolutely no reason a little boy cannot enjoy the Madeline’s House Book Set by Ludwig Bemelmans.  Children adore the exciting adventures of Madeline and her friends from the girls’ school in Paris.

In conclusion…

The next time you (or one of your friends) organize a baby shower, instead of the typical wishing wells and silly games common to showers, consider having a book-themed shower, and have a box devoted just to book gifts. 

Furthermore, I would just like to re-emphasize that I am as frugal as the next person, and I am far from being a “book snob.”  As a child, I adored the simple, formulaic books my mother would purchase me from grocery stores, and I still own all of the inexpensive Little Golden Books that loved ones gave me over the years.  Also, don’t forget the library, where the books are borrowed for free!  Owning the books is certainly not imperative!

Obviously, there are far more classic picture books than I could ever name in one, simple article. I will write future articles about additional picture books to follow children into their growing years.  Last but not least, I never even mentioned the array of playful, fun counting books and alphabet books that are currently on the market.  In short, have fun when browsing in the children’s book section, and select titles that resonate with you.  Just remember that a book is a far more powerful gift than a toy the child will quickly forget.  When you buy a book, you create a sincere memory.

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How can we help struggling readers?

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008 | Reading | No Comments |

** This originally appeared on **

For those of you with children at home who tend to struggle with reading, I know what a frustrating, vulnerable process it can be.  Our desire to help struggling readers is often over-taken by feelings of inadequacy, or simply just a power of wills.  If there is one thing I have learned in my years as a teacher, professor, and reading specialist, it is that reading is a very complex progression, and people don’t always learn to read in the same ways.  What works for one child, doesn’t work for another.  In this article, I will provide clear-cut, hopeful, and doable suggestions to help your child feel more successful. 

Cycles of success… versus failure

The key is this– often times, when a child feels successful, he/she will have continued success.

Whether it is reading, or anything else in life, when we feel like a failure, we experience continued failure.  When we feel successful, we have continued success.  As adults, the more opportunities we provide children to feel triumphant in reading, the more they will want to read, and the more continued progress they will experience in reading. 

One of the tricks is to create occasions for children to feel sincerely successful, which includes finding books they can actually read with a good degree of accuracy and enjoyment. 

The second trick is to provide children with an array of strategies they can use independently to tackle unknown words.  In this way, children then have the confidence they need to navigate the unknown.

This brings me to my next point…

So, what is reading?

In order to help your child, you must know the answer to this complex question.

Reading is making meaning, not the painful letter-by-letter decoding with which we are all too familiar.

In our brains, we have what is called a Cognitive Capacity.  I simply refer to it as my “cup runneth over!”  In other words, when any of us feel frustrated with something, our brain power seizes. There is only so much we can focus on at a given time, and the rest understandably turns to mush.  Unfortunately, we have all had what I refer to as a “meltdown,” when the stress of something just gets to be too much.  Typically, and sadly, this is precisely what happens to a struggling reader’s Cognitive Capacity.  The child is trying so hard to decode a word– letter by painful letter– that he/she loses track, and can’t make heads or tails of the entire thing. 

Reading (and all learning!) is a “dance of strategies at our fingertips.”  Even as adults, we don’t all know every word we encounter—instead we have a hidden plethora of strategies at our fingertips that we use to quickly make analogies and to chunk words into familiar parts.  Show your child how you do this!  Here are some suggestions:

1.  Go to the dictionary and find some really challenging, long words.  Have fun!  Laugh at the words.  Demonstrate for your child how you break the word down, syllable by syllable, looking for chunks of little words within the big word, which you already know. 

2.  While browsing the Sunday newspaper, purposefully underline long or difficult words in interesting articles.  (Children love to read about animals, sports, etc.)  Read the article aloud for your child, pausing briefly at each hard word.  Explicitly illustrate for your child the strategies you use to figure out that word, then show the child how you go back to re-read, to ensure it all makes sense.  Show your child how you look for context clues (words or pictures around the tricky word) to help you determine the word.  In essence, you are exhibiting for your child there is absolutely no shame in not knowing a word—instead, we can all feel empowered by having strategies at our fingertips to tackle the word.  By modeling and extending explicit strategy use with our children, while reading and writing in authentic contexts, we promote self-monitoring and meaning making.

3.  Prompt your child to use those strategies!

In order to truly read, we need to be balancing three cues we send to our brains:

1.  the meaning of the text
2.  all of structural aspects of the text and the words (looking at the whole word, or the entire sentence)
3.  and the visual cues (usually pictures or individual letters in words)      







Unless our brain is balancing all three of those cues, we are not really reading.  For example, most commonly, children will zoom through a text, and have no idea what it was about.  When the child does encounter an unknown word, he/she will just look at the first couple of letters in the word, attempt to sound it out, give up, maybe look at a picture for a clue, and then guess the word, even though the word makes little to no sense.  That isn’t really reading, and no wonder it’s no fun for your child!  His/her cup runneth over!  Your child is only truly reading when he/she can balance all three of those cues from the brain, looking for meaning, all the structure of the words and sentences, and all of the visual cues, such as the pictures and letters.

What can you do if your child is still having difficulty with what sounds letters make?

This, of course, is the core of all reading.  This is also at the heart of the phonics debate that has been going on for decades.  Some children absolutely need explicit phonics instruction, while some children appear to do well without a regimented program.  If your child needs more assistance with phonics, there is certainly no shame in this, and it can be really fun!  I would recommend the book Phonics They Use by Patricia Cunningham.  It is a favorite text among educators, and I’m sure parents love it, too, because Cunningham provides loads of fun ways to meaningfully play with letters, their sounds, and the ways words come together.  Cunningham’s tone is very down-to-earth, and her phonics games are appropriate for a variety of learners, regardless of age. 

Essentially, you want to ensure your child’s phonemic awareness—the ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in words.  Can your child hear the word “cat” and tell you it has 3 sounds?  “C-a-t… cat!”  Can your child stretch words out and put them back together?  Have fun with these types of playful activities.  Parents often find joy and success by watching educational TV programs such as “Sesame Street” or “Between the Lions” with their children. While watching these programs, pause at key points to explore phonemic awareness with your child.  Between the Lions also has a wonderful book for parents, which can guide anyone on the path to literacy for their child.

Remember—this whole article is about children feeling successful, so…

Your children need books that they can actually read!

A common mistake that can easily be avoided is when books are either too hard or too easy for the reader.  I am frequently reminded of the old “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” analogy.  You don’t want a book that is too easy, or a book that is too hard, you want one that is “just right.”  I call it “the zone.”  Finding “the zone” is not always cut and dry, however.  Your child’s teacher will be able to help you with knowing this exact level, and should also be able to suggest leveled reading books that your child could read regularly.  You could also pick up a book such as Fountas and Pinnell’s Leveled Books, K-8, which has a tremendous list of books, all sorted by their various reading levels, so you can ensure your child is reading in his/her “zone” and proudly watch the zone soar as the child improves.  There is nothing more rewarding!

As you help your child select books, please take context and personal passions into consideration.  Remember, reading is fun, so finding topical books, at a reading level that is comfortable for your child, will make a world of difference, and your child will actually want to read!

When choosing books, among other factors, consider a text’s:

  • Vocabulary complexity
  • Sentence complexity
  • Length
  • Illustration support
  • Overall text structure
  • Page layout
  • Suitability to particular reader (personality, maturity, etc.)
  • Content knowledge
  • Genre    

Last, but certainly not least…

In order to get better at anything, whether it’s skating or reading, you need to do the activity a lot.  As the old saying goes, practice truly does make perfect!  In his book What Really Matters for Struggling Readers, Richard Allington reminds us that kids need to read a lot, and they need to be reading books they can read, and that they enjoy. 

I challenge you to think of creative ways to make reading more fun in your households, so that it just becomes another healthy aspect of your lifestyles.  Reading is just another activity we hope children will do independently, and successfully.  With success, comes more success.

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What are some simple things we can do at home to make reading more fun for children?

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008 | Reading | No Comments |

** This article originally appeared on **

Let’s face it—whether we like it or not, it is all too common for children to be more enthralled with a television show or a video game than to be enchanted with a book.  Admittedly, even though I hold a Ph.D. in Reading, and I am a University professor, I can often be found spending hours in front of the TV, rather than with books.  Still, my heart breaks a little every time I hear a child proclaim that he/she hates to read, or that reading isn’t fun.  In this article, I will share simple, affordable tips for making reading a fun activity to do at home.  In our efforts, we want to create authentic experiences surrounding reading so that children will actually want to read, and so that through reading, children will make strong, personal connections.

Here are some straightforward tips to help us get started:

  • One of the reasons many of us prefer television over reading is because the two activities utilize and stimulate different areas of the brain.  Not surprisingly, watching television tends to be a more passive activity.
  • If your child claims that he/she hates to read, it is often not true.  Frequently, a child who is struggling with reading realizes what a fun and important activity it is, but the child’s embarrassment over his/her difficulties with reading cause him/her to declare reading as a boring or distasteful activity.  If your child describes reading as a tedious or intolerable activity, the answer could be as simple as finding books he/she can actually read with comfort and enjoyment.
  • Last but not least, reading is fun!  Show your child that it is!  Do you read at home?  If not, you may have just uncovered why your child does not think reading is fun.  You are the most powerful force in your child’s life.  You need to model meaningful reading everyday, just as you would model healthy eating and exercising.  Just as you would make nutritious foods and exercise an important aspect of your day, make reading a genuine part of your everyday life.  After all—life is what we make of it.  Just as a personal fitness trainer would advise you to select exercises you actually enjoy and that you can do painlessly, I am merely suggesting the same with reading.

In my other recently featured article on QueryCat entitled, “How do we foster a love of reading in our children?” I wrote:

“Carve out special time in the day and/or week, whether it’s at bedtime, or Sunday afternoons, when you can create ‘warm fuzzy’ memories together that are associated with reading.  By ‘warm fuzzy’ I mean a multi-sensory experience, which doesn’t have to be fancy.  The fact is that the reading will be more memorable and enjoyable if you bring your child’s senses alive along with the experience, whether it’s enjoying a mug of hot chocolate along with the book, or reading beneath a make-shift tent made from chairs and a blanket.  Be creative!”

By inventing fun activities surrounding reading that you can do regularly, you will establish a firm foundation of reading in your child’s life, which can yield joy you may have previously thought was unimaginable.  In another article I recently wrote for QueryCat entitled, “How can we help struggling readers?” I said, “I challenge you to think of creative ways to make reading more fun in your households, so that it just becomes another healthy aspect of your lifestyles.  Reading is just another activity we hope children will do independently, and successfully.” 

I am a woman who practices what she preaches!  So, in my own efforts to come up with creative ways to bring reading alive at home, I pondered inexpensive and simple ways to bring favorite books alive in passionate, memorable ways for elementary-aged children. 

A couple of years ago, Southern New Hampshire University thought of an ingenious way to merge the efforts of their students who were majoring in Education, with students who were majoring in Culinary Arts.  Future teachers and future chefs seemed like an unlikely pair, yet the results were unmistakably, deliciously creative… all the while making reading fun.  College-aged students collaborated with elementary-aged students to make book-themed cookies.  They all savored cookies while delighting in reading the books upon which the cookies were based.

Whether it is making artwork, cookies, or make-shift forts… couple great books with great, simple projects.  Make reading a lively, multi-sensory experience each week in your home.

Here are some suggestions, which are based upon the recommendations I provided to the University students for their Cookies & Books Party:

1.  I immediately thought of Lilly’s Purple Plastic Purse by Kevin Henkes.  It would be great fun to make cookies shaped like the main character—a mouse, or of her purse, of course!

2.  Kevin Henkes is one of my favorite author/illustrators, so I also thought of his book Kitten’s First Full Moon, which won the Caldecott Medal in 2005.  It is a favorite among elementary-aged students.  Children could make moon or kitten- shaped cookies!
3.  You might want to throw in a classic book or two, such as Where the Wild Things Are.  You can’t go wrong with this Maurice Sendak classic tale of Max, visiting the wild creatures.  Imagine the monster-shaped cookies!
4.  Along the line of classic children’s picture books, you might consider a title or two by other all-time favorite author/illustrators, such as Eric Carle or Tomie dePaola.  Carle’s Very Busy Spider or Very Hungry Caterpillar would inspire gorgeous web-shaped or butterfly-shaped cookies.  Tomie dePaola also has many classics, such as The Art Lesson, which may inspire palette or paint brush themed cookies.

5.  Getting back to more modern literature for children, I would recommend a relatively new title, Traction Man is Here by Mini Grey.  It is a British book that won awards all over the world.  I have it has required reading in my current university-level children’s literature class, and my adult students adore the book.  There are so many ideas for cookies from that book, too.  Traction Man is a modern day super hero, so children could make cookies shaped like his cape, etc.

6.  Last, on a more serious, academic note, I might recommend a more educational title such as Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson.  This book has exquisite illustrations of quilts, and how quilts have historically played a role in the lives of African Americans, especially with roots to the Underground Railroad.  Children could make gorgeous, colorful cookies shaped and designed like quilts.

Of course, these are merely ideas to help spark your own creations.  I am confident that you and your children can come up with even better ideas!  Please don’t feel restricted to cookies, either.  Painting, clay, sidewalk chalk, or even non-baked items in the kitchen would all be intriguing ways to make reading a sincere blast on a regular basis in your home.  I would even recommend a trip to the library for books, quickly followed by a brief excursion to a dollar store for inexpensive items and inspirations to go along with your reading adventures.

After exploring reading in these invigorating ways, on a regular basis in your home, I would be shocked to hear that your child still says reading is boring or that he/she hates it.  Who knows—you and your children may just even be pulled away from the television long enough to enjoy a chapter book or two together!

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How do we foster a love of reading in our children?

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008 | Reading | No Comments |

**This article originally appeared on**





As a professor specializing in children’s literature and literacy, I am commonly asked this question by concerned parents and teachers.  While some children devour books, others avoid reading like the plague.  Not surprisingly, there are no easy answers to this complex question.  In this article, I will explore some relatively straight forward ways to foster not only a love of reading, but also an overall sense of independence in children.  Whether it’s reading, or any other aspect of life which requires independence, children need healthy practices modeled for them by caring adults.


Fostering independence and a love of reading… and writing, too!


Quite simply reflecting on our own experiences with reading and writing are powerful ways to inform our teaching and parenting. Children need to see that you read and write for real purposes, and that it’s a natural, healthy part of your everyday life, just as you would eat a healthy diet and exercise. 


Here are some pointers and ideas:


       What were your favorite texts as a child?  Perhaps you remember cherished classics like Where The Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak, or Peter Rabbit by Beatrix Potter?  (Who could forget mischievous Max, who gets sent to bed with no supper in Where The Wild Things Are?  Max goes on a delightful adventure with not-so-frightening monsters.  Just as memorable is good-ol’ Peter Rabbit, who is equally as naughty as Max, when he defies his mother by entering Mr. McGregor’s garden.) 


Merely share your favorite books with children.  That energy will be contagious, trust me.  If you don’t have specific or fond memories of reading, or of favorite books from your own childhood, don’t worry!  Please see this as a wonderful opportunity to start a new tradition, and a healthy routine in both the lives of your children, and yourself.                 


       Carve out special time in the day and/or week, whether it’s at bedtime, or Sunday afternoons, when you can create “warm fuzzy” memories together that are associated with reading.  By “warm fuzzy” I mean a multi-sensory experience, which doesn’t have to be fancy.  The fact is that the reading will be more memorable and enjoyable if you bring your child’s senses alive along with the experience, whether it’s enjoying a mug of hot chocolate along with the book, or reading beneath a make-shift tent made from chairs and a blanket.  Be creative!


Honestly, I don’t ever remember my parents reading to me.  My mother says that she did, but I just don’t remember it.  This is probably for two reasons: one, it wasn’t frequent enough; and two, there was no sensory experience surrounding the reading.  On the other hand, I do have very clear, tender memories of reading with my grandmother.  That is because we would read frequently together, and I can picture the pink blanket with which we used to snuggle, and the musty smell of the library books.  Reading with my grandmother became an honored ritual.   Consistency is key!


       Writing is very much the same as reading.  If you do write frequently, involve your child in the writing, even if it’s as simple as a grocery list or a greeting card.  Similar to my suggestion of creating “warm fuzzy” memories associated with reading, do the same with writing.  In his book A Fresh Look at Writing, Donald Graves gives the suggestion of writing for 10 minutes about a photo from your wallet.  This is an uncomplicated way to make your writing meaningful, in a way that directly relates to your life, and to your child’s life, while preserving precious memories.


       Last, and perhaps most importantly, please give yourselves and your children credit.  You are all reading “the world” on a continual basis.  That is, to read, you need not always read books.  You are reading the television, movies, video games, the Internet, etc. on a daily basis.  That is reading!  Do yourselves and your children a favor by considering these activities as reading, and equip your children to read critically.  Today’s children are bombarded by a range of media, and it is our responsibility as parents and teachers to provide children with the eyes and tools to engage critically with media, so as not to get taken advantage of.  Get involved in your children’s passions, whether it’s comics, web pages, etc., and foster their critical reading lenses of these texts.    


Children need to constantly see that we all read and write for real purposes.


Once again, I must emphasize that the key to fostering great literacy practices in our children is that they must see that we all read and write for real purposes.  In fact, most people see reading/writing in one of the following two ways:


Authenticity (enjoyment and function)




Artificial uses (assignments, extrinsic rewards)


There is absolutely no need for children to think of reading and writing as the boring and meaningless activities they do in school, for assignments and empty extrinsic rewards.  Show children that we read and write for real purposes in our daily lives, both to function as citizens (to balance/write checkbooks, vote, read/send mail) and to be happy human beings (in the ways we make a point to enjoy various reading and writing activities, such as writing to friends, joining a book club, etc.)




Remember… fostering any love is really tied to fostering independence.


Whether you want your child to tie his/her shoes, eat healthy, or read, it is all tied to fostering independence.  As adults, we cannot expect children to love and want to do anything unless we foster the autonomy and respect in them to want to do it, and to see the value in doing it.  When fostering independence, or a love of reading in your child, follow the 4 following steps:


  1. Model the reading behavior for the child.  You can’t expect the child to read unless you read… regularly!
  2. Try reading together, whether you read to your child, or your child reads to you.  You could even share the reading.  Many people have had tremendous success co-reading the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling with their children.
  3. It is not until this point that you can necessarily expect the child to be reading independently.  Once he/she does read independently, praise him/her.  Don’t harp on the child for not reading.
  4. Consistently check in to see how your child is doing with his/her reading.  Make a regular point to read with him/her.  Make sure children have stimulating reading materials, which are at an appropriate reading level for them.  Often, children simply get frustrated, and understandably so, when considering their reading material is just too hard for them.


In conclusion…


Parents, here are some good, concrete things you can do to help:


       Be readers and writers yourselves.

       Be bookbinders for your children’s home-made books. Contribute to book- making materials, both at home, and at school.

       Either volunteer in your child’s classroom, or help to coordinate the volunteering schedule and efforts for your child’s teacher, especially if you can’t make it to school during daytime hours.

       Fill out book club orders with your child.  Bring your child to the library on a regular basis.

       Help your children type their self-authored stories.  This is a great way for them to learn the intricacies of the keyboard, too. 

       Coordinate an effort for older students to read and write with younger buddies.

       Consider hosting a home literature discussion group for your child and his/her friends.  (If you’re looking for ideas on how to organize a book club for your child, I would suggest reading Literature Circles by Harvey Daniels.)

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